Digitized First Byurakan Survey - DFBS







First Byurakan Survey

                            Technical data

                            FBS zones statistics

                            Markarian galaxies

                            FBS based projects




                            About DFBS






                            Sample spectra

                            Data visualization

                            Science with DFBS


                            DFBS at Roma

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                            Armenian VO





Other related links

                            Armenian Astronomy

                            Byurakan Observatory







UV-excess (Markarian) galaxies


The FBS was conducted originally for search of galaxies with UV-excess. The discovery of 1515 UV-excess (UVX) galaxies by Markarian and colleagues (later called Markarian galaxies) was the first and the most important work based on the FBS plates (Markarian 1967, Markarian et al. 1989). There are more than 200 Seyferts, dozens of QSOs, few hundreds of starburst and HII galaxies, BL Lac objects, radio, IR and X-ray sources among them (Mazzarella & Balzano 1986; Markarian et al. 1997). During the last 30 years more than 2500 scientific papers have been published on study of these objects. There are many Markarian galaxies, which are subject of study for understanding of AGN phenomenon, starburst activity and evolution of galaxies, high-luminosity IR radiation, AGN variability, double and multiple structure of the nucleus, composite spectrum AGN, galaxy interactions and merging, connection between different types of active galaxies, early stages of evolution of galaxies (some Markarian galaxies are BCDGs), and other important topics of modern extragalactic astronomy. Study of Markarian galaxies brought to discovery of many new Seyferts and spectral classification of this type of objects (Weedman & Khachikian 1971).


FBS blue stellar objects


The second part of the FBS was devoted to the discovery and investigation of the blue (UVX) stellar objects. It was carried out by Abrahamian and Mickaelian in 1987-1994 (Abrahamian & Mickaelian 1996, Mickaelian 1994, and references therein) in 278 FBS fields, in a 4009 sq. degrees area of the FBS (+33<delta<+45 and +61<delta<+90). The main purpose of this work was discovery of new bright QSOs (as Markarian's survey was aimed only on extended objects), Seyferts, other compact galaxies, planetary nebulae nuclei, cataclysmic variables (CV), white dwarfs (WD), subdwarfs, and other peculiar stellar objects (Abrahamian et al. 1999; Mickaelian 2000). 1103 objects have been selected, including 716 new blue stellar objects. Subsamples of candidate QSOs, WDs, CVs have been made up and spectral observations have been carried out for identification of the objects. 11 new bright QSOs have been discovered already among these objects (Mickaelian et al 1999), proving that FBS can provide data for enriching our knowledge on Local Universe. The local density of QSOs and the completeness of the Bright Quasar Survey (BQS) is re-estimated.


FBS late-type stars


A survey on late-type stars on the FBS plates is being carried out since 1987 by Abrahamian and Gigoyan (ex. Abrahamian et al 1997 and references therein). 518 late M-type and carbon stars have been selected already in an area of 4569 sq. degrees in 12 zones, including 355 new ones. Surveys on carbon stars at high galactic latitudes are very rare. Discovery and study of such objects is necessary for study of the kinematics and chemical composition of the Galactic halo. Besides, many objects with extended dust shells, as well as extremely rare two new dwarf carbon stars have been discovered.


Optical identification of IRAS sources


Works on selection of galaxies, blue stellar objects (including QSOs and Seyferts) and late-type stars lead to a new program of optical identifications of IRAS sources on the basis of the FBS plates (Mickaelian 1995). Since 1995, 1577 previously unidentified IRAS point sources (IRAS 1988, 1989) have been optically identified in the area +61<delta<+90 with a surface of 1487 sq. degrees (Mickaelian 2001). In this area, FBS plates have better limiting magnitudes (in average: 18.1 in V). 1178 of the identified sources are galaxies. Observations revealed many interesting objects, including Seyferts and LINERs and composite spectrum AGNs (Mickaelian et al. 1998, Balayan et al. 2001). IRAS galaxies contain AGNs, high-luminosity IR galaxies (LIGs, ULIGs, HLIGs), groups of galaxies (including compact ones), interacting and merging galaxies, etc. The subsample of galactic objects is also interesting, as it contains new planetary nebulae, AGB stars, late M and carbon stars. Some of them have excessive IR fluxes, mentioning on extended dust shells, as well as a number of stars show evidence of variability. Study of the new sample of IRAS galaxies, especially the high-luminosity IR galaxies, may lead to understanding of interrelationship between AGN and starburst activity induced by galaxy interactions and merging.





Markarian survey 1515 UVX galaxies

FBS blue stellar objects 1103 BSOs, including QSOs, Sy, WD, sd, CV, etc.

FBS late-type stars 813 M-type and carbon stars

IRAS identifications 1577 IRAS PSC sources, BIG and BIS objects





Abrahamian H.V. and Mickaelian A.M., 1996, Astrophysics, 39, 531.

Abrahamian H.V., Gigoyan K.S., Hambarian V.V., Azzopardi M., 1997, Astrophysics, 40, 131.

Abrahamian, H.V., Mickaelian, A.M., Lipovetsky, V.A., Stepanian, J.A., 1999, Catalog No. II/223 at CDS, Strasbourg, at http://vizier.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/VizieR?-source=II/223/fbs2.

Balayan S.K., Hakopian S.A., Mickaelian A.M., Burenkov A.N., 2001, Astronomy Letters, 27, 284

IRAS Catalogs and Atlases, 1988, 2. The Point Source Catalog. Declination 90>d>30, Joint IRAS Science Working Group, NASA, Washington, DC: US GPO.

IRAS Faint Source Catalog, 1989, |b|>10, Version 2, On Optical Disc, "Selected Astronomical Catalogs", Supplied by NASA, Vol. 1.

Markarian B.E., 1967, Astrophysics, 3, 55.

Markarian B.E., Lipovetski V.A., Stepanian J.A., Erastova L.K., Shapovalova A.I., 1989, Commun. Special Astrophys. Obs., 62, 5.

Markarian B.E., Lipovetsky V.A., Stepanian J.A., 1997, Catalog No. VII/172 at CDS, at http://vizier.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/VizieR?-source=VII/172.

Mazzarella J.M., Balzano V.A., 1986, A Catalog of Markarian Galaxies, Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser., 62, 751.

Mickaelian A.M., 1994, Discovery and Investigation of the Blue Stellar Objects of the First Byurakan Survey, Ph.D. Thesis, Byurakan.

Mickaelian A.M., 1995, Astrophysics, 38, 349.

Mickaelian A.M., 2000, Astron. Astrophys. Transactions, 18, 557.

Mickaelian A.M., 2001, Astrophysics, 45, 288.

Mickaelian A.M., Gigoyan K.S., 2003, Catalog No.III/237 at CDS, Strasbourg, at http://vizier.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/VizieR?-source=BIS.

Mickaelian A.M, Hakopian S.A., Balayan S.K., Burenkov A.N., 1998, Astronomy Letters, 24, 635.

Mickaelian A.M, Goncalves A.C., Veron-Cetty M.P., Veron P., 1999, Astrofizika, 42, 5.

Weedman D.W. and Khachikian E.Ye., 1971, Astrophysics, 7, 389.




For further info and use of the DFBS contact Dr. Areg Mickaelian

2002-2004 Digitized First Byurakan Survey